25 years in industry,25 years as teacherand researcher
I have almost 25 years of experience as senior executive and consultant in Scandinavian industry and 25 years of experience as researcher and university teacher. My research, focused on innovation and how new knowledge is created, is presented in scientific articles available here. Based on my experience I have developed offerings to three categories of clients: companies, universities, and individual students.My offerings to companies go from inspirational lectures to consulting and board membership. My offerings to universities are three ready-made master courses, which can be plugged into your program, examination of master and bachelor theses, and the supervising of the theses of doctoral, master, and bachelor students.My offerings to individual students consist of preparatory courses and co-tutoring of theses.
This website presents my research and offerings to companies, universities and students
Here you find my published articles (and a conference paper, which I consider important, even though it is not published). You will find the full reference, the abstract and the link to where the full paper can be found for each article. In some cases, slide shows are available, presenting the paper. When copyright allows it, articles can be viewed and downloaded here.
Article News!My latest articles 13-8 you find here.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to verify whether relationship marketing is a new paradigm that has replaced transactional marketing. Design/methodology/approach – A literature and empirical study indicated that relationship marketing is neither an invention of the late twentieth century, nor prevailing in practice. This suggested that rather than a complete paradigm shift, relationship marketing and transactional marketing are complementary. Through interviewing five Scandinavian companies about their marketing priorities, their mix of transactional and relationship marketing approaches was studied.Findings – The paper finds that no company exclusively used the relationship marketing approach. Some were merely utilizing the traditional marketing concept of 4Ps; others were blending a relationship and transactional marketing mix.Research limitations/implications – This is a limited study, which calls for further validating.Practical implications – The Kotlerism of the 4Ps is still dominating. Relationship concepts are utilized to some extent. A relationship strategy can be used as a supporting approach. Thus, there is need to blend relationship and transactional marketing mixes.Originality/value – The paper argues that the relationship marketing is not a paradigm shift; focus should be on relationship management, not marketing. The paper also shows the complementarities of relationship management and transactional marketing.
This is a conceptual paper. In her doctoral thesis, “Capital functions and the position of the workers” (in Swedish), published in 1980, Philipson, explored a Marxian theory of Business administration, based on a little known work by Marx, “Resultate des unmittelbares produktionsprozesses”. She explored the three concepts “levels of functions of capital”, after Bettelheim, the “generalisation of capital functions” and hence globalisation and the possibility to use the concept of “hegemony” in business administration, after Gramsci.Two of the principle concepts were Marx’ “inner” and “outer” conditions of production. These pre-empted the Resource-Based View (RBV) and the School of Industrial Organization (IO) with hundred years. In Philipson36, she proposed 72 phenotypes for the principle strategic situations for companies, based on their inner and outer conditions of production. The resource based view and the Industrial Organization School have long been two antagonistic explanations of the strategic possibilities of firms.This study is a synthesis of these two schools based on the framework developed in Philipson (1980). It suggests a phenomenology for studying firm strategy that might possibly give precedence for a different mix of the two schools in the phenomenological cases.In spite of the development of the RBV and the IO over the last 30 years, the most interesting questions to pursue for strategy research are how companies transcends their resources to reinvent themselves and how they transcend their resources to face new environmental conditions of which they do not have enough experience and resources; hence the transcendence of their limitations.
This paper is a conceptual paper that develops a framework for how to provide an entrepreneurial learning environment in higher education. The framework is based on Vygotsky’s pedagogics and Polyani’s concept ”tacit knowing”. The teacher will instruct the students on how to do ”things”, getting experience of how to do things they cannot yet do, proposing methods how to externalize and reflect on the tacit knowing, in order to acquire a reflected externalized knowledge.
During a trip from Budapest to Berlin in 1990, Joakim Philipson made observations about a grey market trade between Rumanian Roma and Vietnamese guest students in Berlin. It was seemingly inexplicable how the two groups could enter business relationships without a common language. The paper uses the narrative as a basis for a discussion and interpretation of conditional trust and validates classical economic value theory. As “...research on trust... is relatively diverse and multidisciplinary” (Dirks and Ferrin, 2001; Lewicki et al., 1998; both after Gordon, 2007), we are drawing on research in as diverse fields as sociology, game theory, anthropology, and classical economics to question the paradigm that is the basis of both transaction cost economics and relationship management. As such the paper is a narratived case used for conceptual discourse.
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate key antecedents to the use of radical innovation of the business model of a service firm to achieve competitive advantage. “Business model” emerged fairly recently as an academic concept, competing with “sustainable strategic competitiveness”, “strategic fit” (Porter, 1996) and “dominant logic” (Prahalad and Bettis, 1986) to give key explanatory understanding of firm performance.Design/methodology/approach – The article is based on action research, in which the re-engineering of a service business turned into radical innovation of the business model.Findings – Radical innovation (conceived of as a new dominant logic) of the business model of a service firm is shown to give sustainable competitive advantage. It shows how fundamental the concept of business model is to understanding the nature of the business and links it to fundamental academic discussion of recent decades around concepts such as “sustainable competitive advantage”, “structural capital” and “tacit knowing”.Research limitations/implications – This is based on a case, and more research is needed to generalize the findings.Practical implications – In contrast to the knowledge management and structural capital evangelization, much tacit knowing cannot be converted to structural capital.Originality/value – Business model is a central concept to understand business performance, but must not be conceived as all-encompassing. We give a model for what the concept should cover and contrast it with other important models. We show the role of tacit knowledge in a business model.
In the light of recent corporate scandals company failure is usually explained based on agency theory, leading to the conclusion that corporate boards and regulators must use agency theory to control management better. The authors use institutional theory to problematize this advice. We identify the role of accounting as to give predictability, hence preventing company failure. But this predictability can be questioned; it implies stability. Albeit partly with circumstantial evidence, we question this stability with factors making the conditions for management’s decision-making volatile, as explained by antecedents, and leading to unmanageable entities. The implications of this volatility have consequences for corporate governance and question the going-concern assumption, the basis of accounting. Hence, from the dominant explanations that corrupt management, or management with different interests than the principal, leads to company failure, we evolve another chain of cause and effect: volatility, with company failure as a result. It is argued that traditional accounting rituals are unsuitable for many companies. The paper indicates a need for de-institutionalization and reconsidering of accounting practices, and thus particularly the assumption of going concern.
This is a conceptual paper, accepted in 2017, giving a fundamental critique of knowledge management, as conceptualized by Nonaka and colleagues, by a critical reading of Polanyi inspired by the Russian psychologist Vygotsky and the US engineering professor Ferguson. The findings are that the externalization of tacit knowing is much more complex and less prone to “management” than suggested in extant literature. In creating knowledge from such tacit knowing the community pf practice is identified as crucial.
In his groundbreaking work Sources of Innovation, Eric von Hippel discussed from where in (and out of) the value-chain innovations came in different industries: the customer, the manufacturer, the supplier, or third-party innovator (universities, research laboratories, etc.). The world has changed, and new phenomena have become apparent. This article is a conceptual paper that discusses these new phenomena and presents a tentative updated pheno-typology of the sources of innovation, adding six to von Hippel’s original four. To build these phenotypes it draws heavily on Kaulio (1998), Borrus and Zysman (1997), and Hart & Kim (2002).As principal take-away, the consequences for knowledge production and transfer are discussed for each of the 10 phenotypes, in comparison to the in-house, non-open innovation, default phenotype.
The objective of this paper is to build a model of how tacit knowing is externalized and becomes external knowledge. Knowledge Management (Nonaka, 1991, 1994; Nonaka, Toyama, & Konno, 2000) is an important field in Business Administration. Based on the model provided by Nonaka and his colleagues (Nonaka, 1994; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Nonaka et al., 2000) researchers and practitioners have fallen into the pipe dream that employees’ tacit knowing can be coded and canned in computers (structural capital), eventually leading to the enterprise without humans. Earlier critics (Gourlay, 2002, 2006; Gourlay & Nurse, 2005, Grant, 2007; Philipson, 2016, 2019) of the knowledge management paradigm have shown that it does not understand Polanyi’s concept tacit knowing and that it is much more complicated to “externalize” such knowing than presumed by KM. The understanding in extant management literature of this process has been very problematic. Building on concepts in philosophy, psychology, pedagogics, organizational science, and engineering, a model is built and exemplified. This paper develops a theoretical framework for how tacit knowing can be externalized, what is required for such an externalization, and discusses the problems in such externalization, limiting it.
This conceptual paper discusses the phenomenon of differentiation made possible through branding or innovation or a combination of the two. Differentiation is eventually the driving force for the development of its own negation, commoditization. When customers have endured a commoditized market long enough the opportunities open for creative destruction, this concept of Schumpeter (1942), means that an entrepreneur invents a completely new way of satisfying the customers’ unsatisfied needs, making the industry that no longer bothered about their customers. Many researchers have tried to re/brand destructive innovation as their own, with concepts, such as ”transilience”, and “blue ocean strategy’ as opposed to ‘red ocean strategy’.The paper focuses on innovation as a differentiation strategy and on temporary monopoly rent as a driver of innovation. Increased competition and shortening and life cycles makes capitalism more volatile and the strategies to reduce the risks involved are discussed. These strategies lead to the real-world implementation of the concentration of capital forecasted by Marx and feared by Schumpeter.The paper identifies the need to continuously monitor the concentration of capital and to understand individual markets by studying the firm’s profit.
This conceptual paper explores the phenomena of changing cost-structures and the implications for the volatility of capitalism and the possibility to manage firms in such a hostile environment and proposes future research. It also provides an explanation of why the relevance of accounting is lost, the so-called “relevance lost” debate (see among others Francis & Schipper, 1999).The changing cost-structures raises fundamental questions concerning the resulting volatility of capitalism and the management of firms in such an increasingly more volatile environment. In Philipson, Johansson & Schley (2016), we raised the question if it was possible to “...to ride the dragon.” Considering the importance of these phenomena, it is astonishing that we have not found any empirical research concerning them. They rest research questions, based on the author’s almost 25 years of experience as a senior executive in Scandinavian industry.
This is a conceptual paper, originally accepted for another journal in 2020 that ceased publication, about the most fundamental concept in the science of business administration, value. It traces its history, discusses the demarcation approach of the service dominant logic, arguing against it. We hold that customer co-creation is already presumed in the concept of use-value; the customer can realize the value-potential of a product or a service by satisfying experiences from the offering. Under certain circumstances relationships influence the value, often motivating temporal suspension of market relations. In other cases relationships do not give the potential for additional value and the exchange between seller and buyer continues to be a transaction.The micro-foundations of value are searched in the social psychology of these experiences and how they build the value.The paper suggests the need for radical re-focusing of business practices, by proposing a conceptual model based on the macro-foundations of value.
This conceptual paper traces the history of production from simple offerings, with the logic of a product structure to a virtual structure, then how components are outsourced in a supply chain. In Wintelism, individual functions, within a product architecture and specified interfaces, are outsourced. Focal firms view the value chain as an ecosystem to optimize value.Destructive innovation re-structs and destructs ecosystems that are outperformed by eco-systems providing new offerings. Fundamental destructive innovations disrupt the very way production is made, the mode of production, replacing it by another. This paper raises the question if we are close to such a fundamental disruption.
Inspirational lectures for kick offs, top management team, or teams more directly involved in innovation.The consultancy services are in the same fields as the inspirational lectures, giving teams the chance to work hands-on with the issues involved, in order to improve performance.I am also offering to participate as board member in innovation-intensive companies. I have previously been board member of two smaller listed companies and some 20 SMEs.
Consultancy based on extensive industry and research experience
To introduce important issues for your management team, a team of engineers, or a team of product developers, inspirational lectures can be a good starting point. We give such lectures, in areas where we have both practical and research expertise.
Both business model innovation and new product innovation is based on new knowledge, new knowledge that competitors don’t have. How is such knowledge created? Such knowledge creation is a necessary precondition for development and implementation of new business models and new products. Management theory generally has a very simplistic understanding of these issues. We give practical and theoretical examples and structure for the understanding of new knowledge creation.
How is new knowledge created and why is it important?
Organizing innovation is not trivial. New product innovation teams need to be consciously recruited, educated and trained, regarding to experience, competence and attitude. They must be given the necessary work conditions and support. Management must facilitate their work.
Many managers mistakenly have the idea that shop-floor workers cannot contribute to innovation. This is not correct and if properly motivated workers can make important contribution to products and processes. But it requires a change in leadership style, both from top management, production managers, and engineers. The lecture can be given at kick-offs, for top management teams, for engineering teams, workers’ representatives or other groups involved in innovation.
Shop-floor workers; an underused resource for innovation
I offer focused hands-on consulting to improve performance in business model innovation and new product innovation. Apart from being researcher in the field, I have almost 25 years of experience as a consultant and senior executive, working with such issues in as diverse environments as engineering, publishing, and telecom.
Consulting based on extensive industrial and research experience.
I have extensive experience of working with innovation in engineering, media, and telecom and as a researcher of innovation.I offer, coaching, hands-on advice and management for hire, in order to improve the organization and outcome of your innovation work.
Consultancy for developing the organization of innovation
Based on my industrial experience of innovation (Engineering, media, and telecom) and my research on different aspects of innovation, I am a resource in your board, I have been on the board of two smaller, listed companies and some 20 SMEs.
Do you need a new board member, who can help you with innovation?
I have been academic leader, researcher, and teacher for 25 years and have also extensive industry experience. Here you find my proposals to assist universities with programme and course development and three ready-made courses, 7,5 ects, the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, credits, which can be plugged into any master programme. I also offer the examination and supervising of theses.
With extensive industry, research, and teaching experience I can give perspectives to the students. I have tutored some 600 bachelor and 200 master theses and reviewed some 100 scientific articles, rich experience translated into tangible concrete tutoring.
Supervising of bachelor, master and doctor theses.
7,5 ects credit master courses, with syllabus, and me as an experienced teacher. You can plug them in into any programmein business administration. I take careof all teaching and examination orintegrate or develop specificmoments that you want to add.
Three courses, ready to plug-in in your master program
I have 25 years of industry experience, to a large extent working with innovation. Innovation is also my primary research area, with 9 articles published in scientific journals. I have developed a master course in innovation; now offered as a plug-in module to your programme, complete with teaching and examination. The syllabus of the course is offered on request.
A master course in Innovation, 7,5 ects credits, with a built-in coursein writing the theory chapter of the future thesis; ready to plug-ininto your master programme.
I have been teaching marketing theory on master’s level for almost 20 years. I have developed a master course in marketing theory; now offered as a plug-in module to your programme, complete with teaching and examination. The syllabus of the course is offered on request.
A master course in Marketing Theory, 7,5 ects credits, with a built-in course in writing the theory chapter of the future thesis; ready to plug-in into your master programme.
I have examined or tutored some 600 bachelor theses and 200 master theses. I Have reviewed some 100 articles for scientific journals.Apart from lectures, the students will write several texts, on which detailedfeedback is given.
Plug-in course, 7,5 ects credits, in thesis writing for master students.
I have been academic leader and have created an integrated one- and two-year master programme, two bachelor programmes, and co-created an integrated bachelor and one-year master programme, and more than 30 courses.
I have 25 years of experience as university and as such a rich experience of developing programmes and courses and then driving these. I have examined or tutored some 600 bachelor theses and 200 master theses. I have also developed university pedagogics for business administration. What I propose here are courses that are preparatory, which will help you to excel; both in your studies and indirectly to get the job you want.
These are preparatory courses that help you to excel in your studies.
My experience is that many universities presume that you can write your thesis and will not actually give any course on how this is done. This course will give hands on understanding on how to actually do it and also the background for understanding why you should do it in this way.
Usually when writing a thesis, you have the assistance of a teacher at your university, but sometimes the relation with the tutoring teacher does not function, or she/he are not enough engaged in the task, or again your ambitions are higher than what the help from your university seems to give you possibility to reach. I will help you to realize those ambitions, by being a shadow supervisor.
Informal thesis coaching, feedback, and timely advice on how toimprove your thesis
“Many thanks for a fantastic course and your strong ambition and willingness to help. Itis evident that you are knowledgeable and know the subject. Clearly the best course... Daniel“it is a rare opportunity to have learned under you.” Sandra“Thank you so much for your advice, guidance and support!” Mehadi“It was nice to have you as professor.” Philipp“I am very satisfied with the course and Sarah's motivation to guide us when you are stuck. It is evident that she put in much time in the feedback on our papers, we got clear instructions what needs to be changed and how to write on high academic level. I have learned by my mistakes and improved with each paper, for which I am incredibly thankful. it was easy to communicate with Sarah through mail, you often got an answer in 5-10 minutes, independently on the hour of the day, which is much appreciated. The course had a clear structure. it was also good that we had to make opposition on each other's papers and present before the class. You also got clear instructions for how to improve your presentation skills. I learned skills that I can use in work life. Very good and instructive lectures that were relevant for the course.” Anonymous“Best professor ever I have been taught by.Sarah Philipson is one of the best course instructors I have ever met at university of Gävle. It was a very good semester with her.
One of the best teachers I have ever met in my life. I learned a lot. This js really help me to develop myself in future research... Thanks for given us a tremendous opportunity. I would like that she will take another course for us. Thanks.The course is well structured and gives you a lot of valuable information.” Diverse anonymous comments